|Hammer of Hell
2Historical Section, Army Ground Forces, Organizational and Training of New Ground Combat Units, AGF Study, No. 19, 1946, pp. 3-4
3For further explanation of the blitzkrieg doctrine see: Heinz Guderian, Panzer Leader (New York: Ballantine Books, 1965, hereafter cited as Guderian); B.H Liddell Hart, Strategy (New York: Prager 1967); Larry Addington, The Blitzkrieg Era and the German General Staff (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1971); Charles Messenger, The Blitzkrieg Story (New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1976), hereafter cited as Messenger); Kenneth Macksey, Guderian: Creator of the Blitzkrieg (New York: Stein and Day, 1975).
4C.H. Rice, "Antiaircraft Defense Within the Infantry Division," AWC Student Paper, 1 March 1930, MHI file No. 367-63. Major Rice's paper is typical student thinking at the Army War College around 1930. The self-defense argument went so far that Lieutenant Colonel Frank Andrews, a future leader in the Army Air Force, wrote a paper urging the better use of pistols in an infantry division in the air defense role. Frank M. Andrews, "Antiaircraft Defense Within the Infantry division," AWC student project, 29 April 1933, MHI File No. 397-3.
5Letter, Chief of Coast Artillery to Adjutant General, dtd 26 august 1925, sub: Antiaircraft Defense, Chief of Coast Artillery File 666/AM8, National Archives (NA) Box 666 (hereafter cited as 1925 Coe Study); Andrew Hero, Coast Artillery Journal 69 (December 1928), pp. 464-465 (hereafter cited as Hero, CAJ); John W. Gulick, "Antiaircraft Artillery Material, Organization and Future Developments," speech to Army War College, 19 September 1932, Military History Institute (MHI) file No. 325-F-20 (hereafter cited as Gulick 1932 AWC speech).
6Hero, CAJ; Ian V. Hogg, British and American Artillery of World War 2. (London: Hippocrene Books, 1978), pp. 122-125 (hereafter cited as Hogg).
7Gulick, 1032 AWC Speech.
8Ltr, General Jacob Devers to General Leslie J. McNair, dtd 18 July 1942, no sub, NA Box 337-58A-9.
9Memo USW to Asst Secy Army dtd 23 December 1942, no sub, 370/4 GNDCG 321 CAC, NA Box 337-55-118.
10Interview with Colonel W.C. Mahoney, 16 December 1987; Interview with Colonel Charles G. Patterson, 6 February 1988.
12Patterson interview; Interview with Colonel William CE. Corley, 30 November 1987.
13The definitive source on Antiaircraft Artillery in World War I is Charles Kirkpatrick, Archie and the AEF (El Paso, Fort Bliss, Print Plant, 1986); Richard W. Owen, "Origins of the Antiaircraft Artillery," Coast Artillery Journal 93 (January/February 1950), pp. 37-38. Also see Willard Jones, History of the Antiaircraft Artillery, (Washington, OCMH, circa 1955), Chapter 1, unpublished manuscript (hereafter cited as Jones).
14Coast Artillery Journal 93 (January/February 1950) pp. 37-38.
151925 Coe Study
17Gulick 1932 AWC Speech; A.H. Sunderland, "The Coast Artillery Corps," speech to AWC, 9 October 1936, p. 7 MHI file no. G-3, No. 8, 1937 (hereafter cited as Sunderland 1936 AWC Speech. The earliest model, known as the RA Corrector, was sighted through devices similar to a surveyors' transit. The sights, located at specific distances, tracked the aircraft and sent azimuth and elevation data to a set of pointers. The data was plotted by keeping the pointers on prescribed lines. Once lead angles and the fuse setting was determined, this information was sent to the gun and displayed as arrows. The azimuth and elevation trackers kept the arrows in line with others and the gun on the right pointing. The fuse setting was made in much the same way but the fuse setter had to be turned by hand when the round was placed on it.
18Johnson Hagood, Down the Big Road, The Autobiography of General Johnson Hagood, Part III, unpublished manuscript, The Hagood Family Papers, p 313, MHI.
19The Coast Artillery School, Study of Antiaircraft Artillery in a Rear Area (Fort Monroe: 30 June 1935), pp. 40-42, Chief of Air Force History (AFCHO) file 248.712, frame 1394 (hereafter cited as 1933 Gulick Study).
20Fulton, Q.C. Garner, Final Report Joint Antiaircraft Air Corps Exercises Fort Bragg N.C., 1938, Annex 5, AA Commander's Report, dtd 29 October 1938, MHI 98-49, incl 2G; Patterson interview. Lieutenant Patterson was the statistician for the exercise; F.W. Chamberlain, "Fort Bragg Firing Exercise," Coast Artillery Journal 82 (January/February 1939), p.65.
21A.H. Sunderland, "Notes on Antiaircraft Artillery," speech dtd 3 May 1940, Chief of Coast Artillery File 666/FH, NA Box 698 (hereafter cited as 1940 Sunderland Speech).
22Morris Sheppard, "The Coast Artillery Corps," Coast Artillery Journal 80 (January/February 1937), p. 3.
231940 Sunderland Speech
24Peter Chamberlain and Terry Gander, Antiaircraft Guns (New York: Arco, 1975), pp. 57-58; Hogg, pp. 127-139
25Memo, MG R.M. Beck to Chief of Coast Artillery, dtd 5 January 1939, sub: Organization of the Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment, CAC 177, NA Box 199.
26Ibid, first endorsement (Hinman), undtd.
27Memo C/S to G-3, dtd 13 March 1939, sub: Antiaircraft Organizations, OCS 16367-47, MHI
28Hogg, pp. 116-117; Interview with Colonel C.P. Semmens, 11 September 1987.
29War Department General Staff Historical division, History of the Americanization of the Bofors 40mm Automatic AA Gun, (Chief of Ordnance, May 1944), pp. 2-3, Center of Military History (CMH) file 4-12 AM 685 (hereafter cited as the Americanization of the Bofors); Alvin M. Cibula, The History of the Antiaircraft Artillery Command, AGF Study No. 26, 1946, p. 59 (hereafter cited as Cibula).
30War Department, Field Manual 4-102, Employment of Antiaircraft Automatic Weapons (August, 1943); AAA School Camp Davis, "Employment of Automatic Weapons," Class No. AA-6-B, 3 September 1943. AFCHO file No. 248-712-28; Interview with Colonel Frances C. Grevemberg, 22 March 1988.
31Charles S. Harris, "Streamlined Antiaircrafters," Coast Artillery Journal 81 (January/February 1938), pp. 3-11
33Cibula, pp. 96-97.
34Ibid., pp. 99-100, 223-241.
35Letter, Army Ground Forces to MG Joseph A. Green, dtd 9 March 1942, sub: Advanced Directive, Activation of Antiaircraft Command, AGF 320.2/2 (AGF) (3-7-42).
36Jones, p. 44; General Green created the first 10 separate AW battalions by converting National Guard cavalry, infantry, engineer, military police, and Coast Artillery units to Antiaircraft Artillery. Some of these units retained their former battalion commanders. See Special Orders No. 196, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Military Department, dtd 25 October 1940. The 106th Coast Artillery Battalion, which fought at Kasserine Pass, and the 103d Coast Artillery Battalion were created from personnel transfers from the 122d Quartermaster and the 123d Cavalry Squadron. The 105th Coast Artillery Battalion, another Kasserine Pass participant, activated with personnel from the 2d Squadron, 108th Cavalry Squadron, Louisiana National Guard. The 105th Coast Artillery Battalion commander was Lieutenant colonel Frederick H. Fox, the former commander of the 2d Squadron.
37Grevemberg interview; Interview with Kenneth C. Madden, 1 September 1988.
38Ltr., AG to AAC, dtd 5 May 1942, sub: Organization of Coast Artillery Units, AG 320.2 (4-25-42) MR-M-GN, NA Box 337-55-380; Semmens, Patterson, Corely, Mahoney interviews; Interview with Lieutenant Colonel M.J. Lilley, 10 November 1987; Interview with Colonel Peter Peca, 16 December 1987.
40Report, HQ ETO to WD, dtd 8 April 1943,, sub: Quarterly Report, Antiaircraft Operations, NA box 337-555-118; Leslie J. McNair, "Our Expanding Antiaircraft," Coast Artillery Journal 85 (November/December 1942); William R. Keast, Wartime Training in the School of the Army Ground Forces, AGF Study No. 30, p. 21 (hereafter cited as AGF Study No. 30).
41Cibula, p. 136.
42Cibula, p. 23
43Stanley W. Luther, "Antiaircraft Command Inspection Team," Coast Artillery Journal 85 (November/December 1942), pp. 30-31; Ltr. Hq AAC to CG AATC Camp Stewart, dtd 28 May 1942, sub: Training Inspection. One of the units training at Camp Steward in mid-1942 was the 1st Battalion, 90th Coast Artillery, which would serve proudly in North Africa and Italy. The battalion commander, Colonel Landon A. Witt, remembers the trepidation with which the unit faced the AAC inspection. The inspection was comprehensive and covered tactical and administrative tasks. Colonel Witt had a copy of the inspection checklist well in advance of the inspection.
44Cibula, p. 23.
45Cibula, p. 59; Grevemberg interview.
46Cibula, p. 18.
47Memo AAC to AGF, dtd 28 November 1942, sub: Period of Training antiaircraft Artillery Units, AAC 353/BC-18, NA Box 337-55-118.
49Letter, HQ AGF to Subordinate Commands, dtd 17 March 1943, sub: Observer Report, 319.1/43 (Foreign Obsrs) GNGBI, MHI (hereafter cited as Croker).
50Croker, pp. 16-17.
54443d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (Darmstadt: 1953), pp. 6-7; AAA Command, Eastern Defense command, Antiaircraft Artillery in the North African Campaign (interview with MG L.L. Lemnitzer, CG, 34th Coast Artillery Brigade), 26 July 1943, AFCHO 248.712.41A, frame 563 CA (hereafter cited as Lemnitzer interview); Memo G-3, AGF to CG AGF, dtd 29 December 1942, sub: Training In Antiaircraft Defense NA Box 337-55-118.
55Croker, p. 14; War Department, Field Manual 4-101, Employment of Antiaircraft Artillery With Armored Forces, 29 March 1943, MHI.
56Leminitzer interview; Memo G-3, AGF to CG, AGF, dtd 29December 1942, sub: Training in Antiaircraft Defense, NA Box 337-55-118.
57Organization of Ground Troops, p. 123; Army Ground Forces, Army Ground Forces and the Air-Ground battle Team, Study No. 35, (Washington: 1948) pp. 47-50 (hereafter cited as AGF Study No. 35); Army Air Force School of Applied Tactics, "Antiaircraft Artillery in an Air Defense System," Part II, Air Defense Organization, Lecture, 25 September 1943, pp 1-3, AFCHO 248.711-6, frame 455.
58Historical division, Air University, The Development of Air Doctrine in the Army Air Arm, 1917-1941, Study No. 89, 1954, pp. 63-65, 111-113, Aviation in Support of Ground Forces, 9 April 1942, para 37, MHI; AAFSAT, "Antiaircraft Artillery Control," lecture, undated (early 1942), pp. 1-2, AFCHO 502.667, frame 558.
59AGF Study No. 35, pp. 5 and 69-76; Daniel R. Mortensen, A Pattern for Joint Operations: World War II Close Air Support North Africa (Washington:CMH, 1987).
60AGS Study No. 35, pp. 29-43
61Peca, Lilley, Grevemberg, Madden interviews.
62Croker, pp. 8-9; Grevemberg interview. Battery C, 105th Coast Artillery Battalion had one set of binoculars authorized in February 1943.
63AAA Section, II Corps, "Stationing List of AA Units," dtd 26 January 1943 and 16 February 1943, National Field Records Branch (NFRB), Suitland, Maryland, Box 407-427-3170 (hereafter cited as 26 January AAA Stationing List and 16 February Stationing List). The AW battalions were: 103d AW, 105th AW, 106th AW, 107th AW, 431st AW, 432d AW, 434th AW, 436 AW, 437th AW, and 443d AW (SP). The Coast Artillery regiments (AAA) were: 62d CA, 67th CA, 68th CA, 209th CA and 213 CA. See Shelby L. Stanton, Order of Battle, U.S. Army, world War II (Novato: Presidio Press, 1984); Peca interview.
64Croker, p. 7.
65Harry C. Butcher, My Three Years With Eisenhower (New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1946), pp. 198-199; Minutes 1st Meeting AA&CD Committee, 13 December 1942, AFHQ Micro Reel 74G, NFRB.
66Minutes of 15th Meeting, AAA&CD Committee, 9 February 1943, AFHQ Micro Reel 74G, NFRB.
67Croker, pp 3-7. Eisenhower wrote Marshall: ". . . one of the most obvious lessons [of Torch] was the necessity for AA protection for ground troops, and the appropriate AA equipment must be devised and placed in all combat units."
68Memo CG, AGF, to C/S dtd 19 January 1943, sub: Antiaircraft Defense, NA Box 337-55-118.
70Blumenson, Chapter 24 and pp. 238-240. The German High Command debated the objective for Rommel's offensive before it began. Rommel favored an attack through Kasserine. The German High Command specified Le Kef as the objective, but mumbled an attack through Kasserine was permissible. Rommel's decision to initiate the main attack through Sbiba was an effort to follow guidance; the probes into Kasserine were the result of Rommel's inclinations.
71Blumenson, p. 243.
72Blumenson, pp. 228-230.
73Guderian, pp. 78-79.
74Blumenson, p. 231.
75Howe, p. 443; Blumenson, Chapter 27.
77Coker, pp. 9-10; Tony Gunston and Tony Wood, Hitler's Luftwaffe (New York: Crescent books, 1978), pp. 55-56 (hereafter cited as Gunston and Wood).
78War Department, "Lessons Learned From the Tunisian Campaign," dtd 15 October 1943, 309-5, Section VI, Defense Against Air Attack, p. 65, MHI.
7916 February AAA Stationing List.
80Grevembert interview. Although there is no documentation to substantiate that Colonel Harriman made the decisions cited in this chapter and the next, the author is assuming he did so. It was his mission to do so, and Colonel Grevemberg, who served with Colonel Harriman indicates Harriman was a capable and aggressive officer.
81213th CA Regiment Unit Reports dtd 9 February 1943 and 14 February 1943, II Corps G-3 Journal, NFRB Boxes 407-427-3173 and 72; 106 CA S-3 Report dtd 9 February 1943, II Corps Journal, NFRB 407-427-3171.
8216 February AAA Stationing List; 106 CA S-3 report, dtd 22 February 1943, II Corps Journal, NFRB 407-427-3173; II Corps G-3 Journal, 19 . February 1943, entry No. 272, NFRB 407-427-3173.
83Cibula, p. 59; Antiaircraft Artillery Service Test Section, Monographs of Test Procedures dtd. 22 May 1946, Richard H. Crawford and Lindsey F. Cook, The United States Army in World War II, Statistics, Procurement (Washington: OCMH, 1952
84II Corps G-3 Journal, 16 February 1943, telephone conversation between Colonel Hower and Colonel Honeycutt, 0745 hours, NFRB 407-427-3171; 26 January and 16 February Stationing Lists.
851st AR Div, Field Order No. 6, 2300 hours, 19 February 1943, II Corps G-3 Journal, NFRB 407-427-3173; Msg XIX Corps to II Corps, dtd 16 February 1943, 1145 hours, II Corps Journal, NFRB 407-427-3127; 15th Meeting AA & CD Committee, 19 February 1943, NFRB-AFHQ Micro Reel 74G.
86Henery von Kolniz, "An AW Battalion in Africa," Coast Artillery Journal 86 (September/October 1943), pp. 4-9, Grevemberg interview; Memo, 105 CA battalion to AG, dtd 13 March 1943, sub: Report on Recent Operations, NFRB 407-427-16927 (hereafter cited as 105 CA Sitrep).
88Howe, p. 443; Blumenson, pp. 238-240.
89Grevemberg and Madden interviews.
90Ibid; Letter, Mister George Zorini to the author, 18 July 1988.
91Paul Werner Hozzel, "Conversations with a Stuka Pilot," conference, Army War college, 1983, p. 104 (hereafter cited as Stuka Pilot,; Gunston and Wood, pp. 164-166, 205-207, 219-22; Grevemberg interview.
92Grevemberg, Madden, and Peca interviews; Intell Svc, AAF, Interview with MG L.E. Oliver, Commanding General, 34th Infantry division, 23 February 1943, p. 3, AFCHO 605.03, Frame 1710.
95Blumenson, pp. 240-243; Howe, pp. 457-465.
97Blumenson, pp. 261-262.
99Blumenson, pp. 240-243.
100Blumenson, pp. 254-255.
101Blumenson, 261-263; Howe, p. 462.
102Blumenson, pp. 264-266; Howe, p. 461.
103Unit History, "Factual Summary of the Combat Operations of the 1st Infantry Division," 1945, p. 14, CMH.
104Blumenson, pp. 268-271.
105105th Coast Artillery Situation Report; Blumenson, p. 274; HQ, 1st Armored Division, Field Order No. 6, dtd 19 February 1943, NFRB 407-427-3173 (hereafter cited as 1 AD FO No. 6).
106105th Coast Artillery Situation Report; Blumenson, p. 274; HQ, 1st Armored Division Field Order No. 7, dtd 23 February 1943, NFRB 407-427-3173; Memo, LT Honeycutt to II Corps G-3 dtd 21 February 1943, sub: Report of visit to HQ, CCB, II Corps G-3 Journal, 407-427-3173; Grevemberg interview; Zorini Letter; 105th Battalion Unit Report, dtd 18 February 1943, II Corps G-3 Journal, NFRB 407-427-3172.
107Blumenson, p. 266; Howe, p. 462.
110Blumenson, pp. 268-271; Howe, p. 465.
111Blumenson, pp. 275-276.
112HQ 1st Armored division, Periodic Report No 21, 1100A, 23 February 1943, in II Corps G-3 Journal, NFRB 407-427-3173.
113Memo XXI support Command to Subordinate Units, dtd 21 February 1943, no sub, in II Corps G-3 Journal, NFRB 407-427-3173; Howe, pp. 476-468; Blumenson, pp. 281-283, all attribute the fratricide to AAA fire. Colonel Grevemberg believes otherwise. Colonel Grevemberg spoke to Mister Joseph Hubbard, who was assigned to Battery B at Thala. Hubbard remembers the p-38 engagements, but is positive no Antiaircraft Artillery troops fired at the aircraft. All the fire was machine gun fire. Hubbard could be certain there were no 40mm rounds fired because of the unique signature of a self-destructing round.
114Blumenson, pp. 283-285.
115105 Coast Artillery Situation Report; Madden interview.
116Memo AFHQ to AGF Board, AFHQ, undtd (Fall 1943) sub: general effectiveness of U.S. AA units in North African Theater, NA Box 337-46-68.
120Mahoney interview; "The Rollin' Seventy-First," unit history provided to the author by Colonel Mahoney.
121Patterson, Jacks interview.
122Memo ETD to WD dtd 18 October 1943, sub: Quarterly Report, Antiaircraft Operations, NA Box 337-55-118; Memo colonel Walter B. Goodrich to AGF, dtd 20 April 1944, sub: U.S. AAA Training at British Practice Camps, England, AGF C-34-1, MHI.
123Peca interview; Cibula, pp. 168 & 172. The Weiss sight, the Stiff Key Stick and the Peca sight were on-board fire-direction devices that used different mechanisms to adjust azimuth and aircraft speed inputs to the Bofors gun. The AAC conducted a shootoff between the three systems in early 1943. Colonel Peca was informed by an AAC representative in 1945 that the Peca sight was eliminated because it was too fragile. The three systems had equal accuracy, but the AAC adopted their candidate, the Weiss sight. Colonel Wilfred Boettiger was a Weiss sight officer and had the mission of teaching the sight to soldier in the Mediterranean in 1944 and 1945. He believes the Weiss sight was as accurate as the director.
124Ltr, HQ 12 Army Group to CG, ETOUSA, dtd 12 August 1944, sub: Modification Kit for 40mm AAA Guns; Paterson, Jacks interviews.
125Memo AAC to AGF, dtd 30 January 1943, sub: Communications Requirements for AW Battalions, AAC 320/C-1-GNSEQ, NA Box 337-55-36; Table of Organization and Equipment, Antiaircraft Artillery, Automatic Weapons Battalion, Mobile, dtd 30 September 1943, MHI.
126Patterson, Jacks interviews.
127Jack E. Dudley and Michael G. Kelakos, "The Forty Niners," unit history, pp. 9-16, MHI (hereafter cited as 49ers); ETOUSA, "Movement and Deployment Procedures for AAA AW Unites," dtd 22 February 1944, AFCHO 502.667, Frame 914; AGF Antiaircraft Information Bulletin No. 12 dtd 9 February 1943, p. 12, Combined Arms Research Library (CARL), Fort Leavenworth, CARL 2886.11. In AAIB No. 12, General Timberlake commented on the value of the Blandford training: "Would recommend bearing down on mobility training which facilitates simultaneous reconnaissance and movement of the guns. This training has proven itself in Normandy."
12849 AAA Bde S-3 Journal, 19 December, 1943, NFRB 407-427-17524 (hereafter cited as 49 BDE S-3 Journal); Mahoney interview; 49ers, pp. 9-16.
129First U.S. Army, First United States Army Report of Operations 23 February-8 May 1945, p. 93, MHI; Reports from AGF Board, NATO, dtd 17 November 1943, NA Box 337-46-68 quotes General Mark Clark, the Fifth Army commander: "flexibility in the battle area is obtained by keeping all AA not required for the forward area in the Army and Corps pool where it is used to protect advanced landing grounds, river crossing, vulnerable stretches of road, etc. . . . or to provide rotation of units in the battle area."; Patterson interview; Ltr. HQ fifth U.S. Army to General Green, dtd 19 August 1943, quoted in AAC Intelligence Circular No. 2, dtd 15 February 1944, p. 10, CARL N-6174.2, the Fifth Army AA Officer summarized the major lesson learned from the Sicilian Campaign and operations in Italy to that time: "Antiaircraft artillery is coordinated and massed in the most vital areas by the commander of the corps antiaircraft brigade," Fifth USA allocated an AAA Brigade, not a group, to each corps.
130Interview Colonel Ralph E. Deems, 16 November 1987; Interview with Colonel William F. Higgins, 13 November 1987; Jacks interview.
131Antiaircraft Information bulletin No. 19 dtd 30 June 1945, pp. 5-16, CARL N 2886.18 discusses three different corps solutions to the early warning problem. Colonel Paterson established wire communications to battalion level, to include those units attached to the divisions. Colonel John Tredennick, the S-3 of the 49th AAA Brigade, believes the brigade had hundreds of miles of wire laid at any given time; interview with Colonel John C. Tredennick, 24 November 1987. It is the author's estimation that communications to battalion level were satisfactory but intermittent to battery level. At Remagen, neither Deems nor Higgins received early warning of enemy air attack. By the end of the war, the AAC believed AW battalions needed their own radar. Seen Antiaircraft Information Bulletin No. 21, dtd 18 august 1945, pp. 1-9, CARL N 2886.2.
132Corley, Jacks, Mahoney interviews.
13549ers, p.21; Mahoney interview. Colonel Mahoney was seriously wounded on D-Day. He earned a Silver Star for his gallantry.
136Patterson, Mahoney Interviews.
137Patterson, Mahoney, Corely interviews; HQ first U.S army, Fist Army S.O.P., Annex No. 12, Antiaircraft Artillery in Continental Operations, dtd 18 May 1944, pp. 9-16, AFCHO 580.301.
138Mahoney, Patterson, Deems, Higgins, Corely, Grevemberg interviews.
140Interview with Colonel Herbert N. Cine, 13 November 1987; "The fighting 413th," p.2 (unit history provided to the author by Colonel Cline) (hereafter cited as 413th).
141Interview colonel Martin Cohen, 30 November 1987.
142For an excellent summary of antiaircraft operations in the European Theater see "Supreme Allied Expeditionary Force," Air Defense Review, No. 9, dtd 3 June 1945, CARL N4949.
144Walter E. Reichelt, Phantom Nine (Austin: Presidal Press, 1987), p.212 (hereafter cited as Phantom Nine.
146Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier's Story (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1951), p. 511.
147Ibid., page 512.
149Ibid., p. 514.
151Memo HQ 49 AAA Bde, "Attachments and Missions," dtd 7 March 1945, NFRB 407-427-1752 (hereafter cited as 49 Bde Missions); Unit History, 16 AAA Group, 1943-1945, p. 33, NFRB 407-427-17609 (hereafter cited as 16 AAA GP).
153Higgins interview. See Report, HQ 482 AW Battalion, dtd 1 January 1945, no sub, for a detailed description of A battery, 482d AW Bn participation in the Battle of the Bulge (provided to the author by Colonel Higgins); HQ Third U.S. Army, GO NO. 44, dtd 22 February 1945, awarded the Presidential United Citation to A Battery for its participation in the Battle of the Bulge.
154Table of Organization and Equipment No. 44-75. Change 1, dtd 22 January 1944, Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, Self-Propelled, MHI; Higgins interview.
155Higgins interview; HQ 9th Armored Division Artillery, "After Action Report, 1-31 March 1945," dtd 8 April 1945, CARL R2153; 16 AAA GP, p. 39.
15716 AAA GP, pp. 38-39.
158Mahoney, Tredennick interviews.
15916 AAA GP, pp. 2-6; Patterson, Cline interviews; First U.S. Army Operations Plan Neptune, Annex 15, dtd 25 February 1944, pp. 7-14, CARL N7374-A1; 49ers, pp. 21-23.
160Patterson interview; 413th, pp. 3-6.
161Cline interview; 413th, pp. 3-4.
16249 Bde S-3 Journal, 2 March 1945, 1219 hours and 1650 hours; 16 AAA GP, p. 33.
163Ibid.; Cline interview; 413th, pp. 7-8.
164Higgins interview; The Ben J. Cothran Papers, p. 10, MHI (hereafter cited as Cothran). Major Cothran was the S-3 of CCB, 9th Armored division; 16 AAA GP, p. 33.
169Patterson, Cline interviews; Antiaircraft Information Bulletin No. 18, dtd 6 June 1945, p. 14, CARL N2886.17 (hereafter cited as Remagen AAIB).
17149 AAA Bde, "Digest of Intelligence Information," dtd 5 March 1945, p. 10, NFRB 407-427-1725; 16 AAA GP, p. 34.
174Cothran, p. 10.
17549 AAA Bde, Enemy Aircraft Destroyed or Damaged, no date (early March 1945), NFRB 407-427-17523.
17616 AAA GP, p. 34; Remagen AAIB, p. 15; 109 AAA Gun Battalion Unit History, p16; 49 AAA Bde S-3 Journal 101630 March 1945, NFRB 407-427-1723.
177Interview with Colonel John Burrows, 7 December 1987,; SHAEF, Air Defense Review, No. 8, dtd 30 April 1945, p. 14, CARL (hereafter cited as SHAEF No. 8)' Patterson interview.
178Deems interview; 462 AW battalion United History, p. 60 (hereafter cited as 462 History) (provided to the author by LTC Robert Bennet).
17916 AAA GP, p. 34.
180Ibid.; Remagen AAIB, p 15; Cline interview.
181Antiaircraft Information Bulletin No. 2, dtd 5 September 1944, p. 5 CARL N 2886.2.
18216 AAA GP, p. 34.
18416 AAA GP, p. 34; Remagen AAIB, p. 17.
18516 AAA GP, p. 34; Mary Catherine Welborn, "Overall Effectiveness of First U.S. Army Guns Against Tactical Aircraft," Operation Research Office, Project ANALAA, John Hopkins University, 18 January 1950, p. 25, CARL 16454.45; SHAEF No. 8, p. 20; 462 History, p. 62.
186Interview with Colonel Thomas J. O'Donohue, 10 March 1988.
187MacDonald, p. 227.
188MacDonald, p. 227.
189SHAEF No. 8, p. 20.
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