Villacoublay was located among a cluster of small towns southeast of Versailles and comprised two separate airfields, separated by a national highway. Villacoublay-Sud, the larger, was formerly an aircraft factory and a research facility for the French Air Force. One row of hangars and buildings was now an important Fw190 repair and modification center, operated by Junkers. Another row had previously housed a Breguet factory, which had now moved elsewhere, and underground. Villacoublay-Nord contained a former Morane factory, now used to assemble Fieseler aircraft. Each field had a large, well-drained landing ground and one concrete or asphalt runway. Each had numerous dispersals well-camouflaged in the surrounding woods. Two small war-service landing grounds, Buc and Toussus, were nearby. These served as overflow and emergency landing fields, and as places of refuge when the larger bases were under Allied attack.